utilitarianism Photos & Videos

6 hours ago

Deontological v Teleological ethics 🌸💗💖💕💓

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8 hours ago

. . . . It's meant to #bloom very soon unless those hands lacking a thumb of green stretches its poisonous ivy unto the enduring attempt to replicate itself after a long while. . . . . Self-preservation, the diverse approach all these lives adopt to have themselves or their offsprings the fighting chance to continue the circle of life, while no one really bothers to learn why the heck they engage in such arduous task. . . . . #heiddeger #essentialism #existentialism #pragmatism #utilitarianism . . . My thought was that the world might become a better place with two or more of the likes of you in it, but I forgot if I'd have to contribute the other half of that being there is a high risk of making everything worse than it already is. But who the heck am I to say what the generation to come, can or cannot do. I may get to offer some ground to those burdened but fortunate ones but they ought to be on their own and I mustn't dare desire to control those as if they are of my possession. . . . They will be guided not forced and encouraged not disheartend... . . . . #orchid #zen #atmyoffice #fridayiswateringday

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1 day ago

"It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question.The other party to the comparison knows both sides.". . ........ J.S.Mill 《Utilitarianism》 . #crestedmyna #八哥 #mainacrestata #ハッカチョウ #birdwatching #觀鳥 #hk #lammaisland #outlyingislands #香港 #南丫島 #離島 #apr #2019 #bird #uccello #野鳥 #lowpixel #birdiary #birdsofinstagram #humanbeing #dissatisfied #pig #satisfied #socrates #fool #jsmill #utilitarianism

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4 days ago

A lot of you chimed in our thought provoking ethical dilemmas and that was fun to hear from you. Now tune in to our latest episode and hear how we responded to these difficult questions on the Curiosity: Satisfied Podcast.

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5 days ago

Paul Tillich and symbols , the fish in Christianity was used as a secret code when it was against the law to be Christian, symbols open up hidden meaning, grow and die and can’t be created intentionally. They also evoke feeling🌸🌸🌸 SUMMARY - Grow and die, can’t be created intentional, secret meaning, evokes feeling🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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5 days ago

4 ppl give definitions for miracles🌸🌸 Aquinas says you need the ‘divine’ and that humans can’t ‘understand’ and there are 3 active ways god can go this, something which nature couldn’t do, not in order or sudden that principle of nature couldn’t do🌸🌸 Holland says it’s a ‘coincidence that is interpreted religiously’🌸🌸 Hume says it’s gotta be ‘a transgression of a law’ namely by a ‘deity’🌸🌸🌸 Swineburne agrees and says the same as Hume and it must contribute to a sense of divine purpose either strengthen faith or reveal something divine 🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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5 days ago

Freud through the religion was an obsessional neurosis and that religion was like having OCD, he also believed in the Oedipus complex and the idea that ppl want to fuck their mums and kill there dads + penis envy, this comes from the primal hoardes (even tho there is no evidence of this being a thing), which then this trickelled down into other religions like Christianity🌸 Ludgwigg thought religion was just a projection of our desires, religion also helps the helpless🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸 Jung is different, he things that religion is a good thing, it helps you recover and find your true self, there are 3 parts to the mind, the conscious and unconscious, the unconscious then has a personal and collective part, that collective part is innate, the personal part is made up of archetypes, like the self, shadow, anima and person🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸 Atheism is where you don’t believe in God, agnostics is where Gods existence can not be know, weak atheism is where you don’t believe in god but you’re not sure if he exists or not, strong is that there is no god, protest atheism is the idea that even if God does exist, they won’t follow him and finally new atheism is the idea that religion is dangerous and a threat to humanity 🌸🌸

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5 days ago

Augustian theodicy tried to respond to the problem of evil, Augustine said that (1) God is perfect (2) God made the world (3) The world is perfect, in genesis ‘god saw what he had made and it was very good’ God had created a world without moral and natural good, God can’t create evil so it’s not a thing in itself, it’s the privation of good🌸 God gave us free will, when humans make the deacon to disobey god they create an absence of good within, the sin of Adam and Eve destroyed this state of perfection, doctrine of the fallen man, all humans are guilty of disobedience🌸🌸🌸🌸 God is loving and fair, by fair I mean he doesn’t get involved with evil because he says it’s ‘all evil is sin or it’s the punishment for sin’, by loving I mean that he has created eternal life for those who repent because of the death of Jesus ‘since there is happiness for those who do not sin, the universe it perfect🌸🌸🌸 PROBLEMS !!! (1) How can a perfect world go wrong? Either it wasn’t perfect to begin with or God enabled it to go wrong !! Logical contraction (2) How could a perfect being chose to do wrong?? Also contradictory (3) Was the world really made perfect? That’s contradictory to evolution (4) Is it reasonable to say suffering isn’t a real thing?????

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5 days ago

Problem of evil is basically the problem of suffering against the existence of God which basically means the existence of pain and suffering is incompatible with the god of classical this🌸 There are two types of problem of evil, the evidential problem of evil and the logical problem of evil🌸 The logical problem of evil is a deductive argument and is most commonly associated with Epicurus and JL Mackie🌸 Epicurus creates the epicurean paradox which basically said ‘Is god willing but not able? Then he is not omnipotent’ ‘Is he able but not willing? Then he is manevelont’ ‘Is he both able and willing? Then whence Comte evil’ ‘Is he neither able or willing? Then why call him god?’🌸 JL Mackie then simplify this into the inconsistent triad, Mackie says ‘cannot be logically the same all the time’ {{God is all good/ God is all powerful/ Evil exists}} If God is willing to get rid of evil and able big doesn’t then god doesn’t evil🌸🌸🌸 Premise 1 - Evil and suffering exists (NOPE) evil is a privation of good, evil is an illusion, Premise 2 - God is all loving and all powerful (NOPE) In Zoroastrianism God is not omnipotent, deism is the belief in a non personal god therefore not all loving, Premise 3 - An all loving all powerful god would remove suffering (NOPE) God has a plan for us all and good reason , Concludion - God doesn’t exist🌸🌸🌸 The evidential problem of evil is an inductive argument that says it’s improbable for god to exist because there is so much unnecessary suffering🌸🌸🌸🌸

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1 week ago

Verification says language can only be meaningful if it can be verified empirically or is a tautology, if it can’t be true or false what’s the point of discussing it🌸 things are practically verifiable which means we can test it in reality and other things are verifiable in principle which means we could in theory do it if🌸 Verification also distinguished between strong and weak verification, strong is anything that can be verified through observation and weak is verification that is probable through observation🌸 Problems are that it fails it own test, it’s not empirically verifiable or a tautology therefore we don’t need to discuss it, historical and scientific event can’t be verified and eschatological verification is possible so all religious statements are verifiable in principle🌸🌸 Bc of these problems they scrapped the strong and weak verification and created directly and indirectly verifiable which is where statements are of observation or not directly but can’t be verified through other verifiable statements 🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Falsification is the idea that for your statement to be factually meaningful we need to be able to falsify it🌸 Flew said that religious statements aren’t meaningful bc religious believers don’t allow their belief to be falsified🌸 Hare thinks we should see them as blinks that are cognitive and personal🌸 Michell says acc they’re cognitive and that religious believers do take in account evidence against there views🌸 Swinburne argues that acc its the falsification that is shit and that just bc we can’t falsify something doesn’t mean it’s false nor meaningless🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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The free will defence is that there must be free will therefore evil and suffering is a consequence, we also need natural evil bc without death we couldn’t make the ultimate sacrifice, give us a focused view of life, stops the old dominating the young and limits suffering 🌸🌸🌸 🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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1 week ago

Irenean theodicy said that humans most grow to be like God, we must do that through suffering, the world can’t be perfect because our actions would have no moral consequence🌸 Swinburne adapts this and says that real pain, real poverty, real corruption caused real selfishness, real compassion and real generosity which would not be possible is a perfect world🌸🌸 Hick then adapts this into the soul making theodicy where god could get involved but that would undermine human freedom, although suffering doesn’t always result in a better soul, it can continue after death ‘universal salvation’ this way everyone reaches heaven🌸🌸 4 main problems are that the ends don’t justify the means, it’s to optimistic to say that all suffering results in moral growth, surely it’s not just suffering that can cause growth and if there is universal salvation, what’s the point of being moral now?!!🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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1 week ago

Augustinian theodicy🌸 Augustine said that evil is not created by God but is a lack of (or privation) of goodness caused by the disobedience of human beings🌸 Many problems including that a perfect world can’t go wrong, perfect beings don’t choose to go through and it doesn’t add up with science, it is not even reasonable to say suffering isn’t a real thing!! 🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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PROBLEM OF EVIL, the problem of evil is split into 2 problems, the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil, the logical problem is deductive where if the premises are true then the conclusion must be true, where as the evidential is an inductive argument which doesn’t prove the conclusion but argues that the existence of evil makes god existence unlikely🌸🌸🌸🌸 The evidential problem of evil is associated with Epicurus and JL Mackie 🌸🌸 Premise 1 is evil and suffering exist - a response is that evil is not in a thing in itself but an ‘absence of good’🌸🌸 Premise 2 is that God is all loving and all powerful - Deism is the belief in a non personal God and in Zoroastrunism they believe that God is not omnipotent🌸 Premise 3 is that an all loving/powerful God would remove suffering - no he wouldn’t because he has good reason, evil is like a world without up🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Utilitarian - Head Porter

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The location problem is for Type identity theory, if my c fibres are firing surely we could locate my pain with an mri scanner to find exact location, if pain and c fibres are identical they must share the same properties and location, but they don’t, do type identity theory is false🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Knowledge argument is the Mary argument where Mary is locked into a room, she learns everything she can about red but never experiences the colour, she just knows all the physical facts, when she leaves the room she gains new knowledge🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Ontological reduction is concerned with the nature of beings which involves showing that beings or entities of one kinds are one kind in reality and same the in another, like a morning star and an evening star, different concepts but identical so they are the same star 🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Descartes conceivability argent runs as followed; I have an idea of my body as something physical that does not think, I have an idea of my mind as a thinking thing that is not physical, therefore my mind and body exist separate from each other therefore they are two distinct substances 🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Substance dualism says there is two completed different kinds of substances in our universe; mental substances and physical substances. Physical substances are like trees and care, the brain is also physical as it’s part of the body but the mind is not, the mind is non physical 🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Epiphenomenalist dualism is a subset of property dualism that believes that the physical world can cause mental states but mental states cannot cause changes in the physical world🌸 Me going to get pizza can be explained in terms of brain states not mental states, gherlin is released into the blood stream which causes you to get pizza 🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Functionalism has many problems, like for example it rules out inverted spectrum, China’s brain and the knowledge argument🌸 The problem that rules out inverted spectrum is as follows; what if my experience of green was like your experience of blue and vise versa? If my qualia when I look at the sea if similar to when you look at grass, our mental states would be functionally identical, functionalism says they’re the same mental state even thought they’re obviously different so functionalism is false🌸 The China brain problem was put forward by Ned Blocks. The China brain thought experiment describes a set up that is functionality identical to s mind but is clearly not the same. The Chinese population links together and recreates the brain. According to functionalism the China brain would be in pain given the appropriate input but it’s not, the pain is not passed around🌸 Finally the Mary argument where Mary must be seeing more than just a functional state🌸🌸 All the functional and physical facts wouldn’t be enough for Mary🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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There are many problems for behaviourism, like what about mental states that display no behaviour, you can be in pain but hide the behaviour (although behavioural dispositions are how you are likely to behave)🌸 another problem which Hilary Putnam develops is the ‘super Spartans’, who don’t show pain, although it’s a made up example there are CIP differed who don’t show any behaviour to pain. Hi this is because they don’t feel pain therefore tho pain must be physical??🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Problems with eliminative materialism is that I’m rejecting folk psychology, eliminative materialism goes against many intuitions we have, Descartes took ‘I think’ (which is a folk psychology term) to be his first certainty we have about mental states🌸 you can also charge eliminative materialism as being self refuting, eliminative materialism claims there are no beliefs but by arguing for eliminative materialism churchland js expressing a belief which if he has a belief disproves his own theory🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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There are 3 problems that type identity has to over come, the location problem, zombies and multiple realisability🌸 The location problem is as followed, if my c-fibres are firing it is presumably easy to locate where this is happening, you could find them but some pain doesn’t have a physical location, you cannot locate the subjective mental state of pain, if pain and c-fibres are identical then they must have a precise physical location, pain does not have precise location therefore their not identical🌸 Zombies are in issue because we can imagine a zombie with the brain state of c-fibres firing but not the mental state of pain🌸 Hilary Putnam argues that mental states like pain can not be reduced to brain states, such as C-fibres firing because mental states are multiple realisable, meaning that the same mental state can come from many brain states. Different things firing can also be pain, an octopus has o-fibres firing for pain, does this not mean they’re in pain? 🌸🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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Eliminative materialism rejects the concepts of common to other theories (folk language), they don’t believe in using concepts like pain, belief, fear, happiness. Other theories try to define them in terms of the physical but eliminative materialism wants to eliminate them in favour of neuro science. Folk psychology doesn’t correspond to anything specific, although usual and practical, they don’t reduce to anything🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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PHYSICALISM🌸🌸 physicalist theories of the mind argue the universe is made of one kind of thing, physical, all physicalist theories agree the mind is physical but disagree on what sort of physical thing mental states are🌸🌸🌸 BEHAVIOURISM🌸 Behaviourists day that mental states are the same thing as behavioural dispositions. To be in pain is to say ‘ouch’ or if someone was to ask you if you were in pain they would display pain behaviour🌸🌸🌸 TYPE IDENTITY THEORY🌸 Type identity theory says mental stares are the same thing as brain states. Then mental state is being in pain is the same as having the physical c-fibres in your brain firing🌸🌸🌸🌸 FUNCTIONALISM🌸 Functionalism says that mental states are to be understood by their functions within the cognitive system, pain should be understood as an unpleasant sensation that causes one to avoid bodily harm 🌸🌸 ELIMINATIVE MATERIALISM🌸 Eliminative materialism rejects a key assumption of the other three theories, they the concept of folk psychology. Instead of seeking to reduce pain to some physical thing, we should just eliminate it in favour if a more accurate description like neuroscience🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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TIME LAPSE ON PHYSICALISM🌸🌸 Physicalist theories of the kind argue the universe is made up of one kind, the physical! Physicalist theories all agree the mind is a physical thing but they all disagree about what kind of physical thing mental states are🌸🌸🌸 #alevelbuddhism #alevelphilosophy #philosophyofmind #functionalism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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DESIGN ARGUMENT🌸🌸 Design argument is an inductive, a posteriori argument which try’s to pursue us with empirical evidence🌸🌸 Socrates says ‘you can doubt they are work of design’, Cicero says ‘what could be more obvious’🌸🌸 The appearance of design is either because of a creator god and design or through Mother Nature and chance🌸🌸🌸 The most we’ll know arguments are the arguments from design (Payley) or arguments to design (Anthropic arguments) 🌸🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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AQUINAS FIFTH WAY🌸🌸 It’s a teleological, inductive argument🌸🌸🌸 AQUINAS uses the example of archery, an arrow cannot reach the target by itself, it needs to be fired by an archer in order for this to happen, he then relates this to the universe, everything follows natural laws even though they don’t have intelligence🌸 Many things follow laws and fulfil their telos without thinking, like a plant growing and producing flowers, it can fulfil its purpose without thinking🌸 Aquinas said this housing intelligence must be God🌸 Aquinas said ‘Now whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end unless it be directed’🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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DAVID HUMES CRITICISMS WITHS THE COSMOLOGICAL🌸🌸🌸 Just because we observe cause and effect in the universe, does not mean that this rule applets to the universe itself, Russel said ‘just because every human has a mother, does not mean that whole of humanity has a mother’ This is often called the ‘fallacy of composition’🌸🌸We have no experience of the universe being created therefore cannot talk meaningful about that🌸🌸 Not enough evidence to say whether the universe had a cause let along what that cause may be🌸🌸 Even if God was the cause of the universe, we can’t determine that he was the God of classical theism🌸🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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THE KALAM COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT🌸🌸 Created by Al-kindi and Al-Ghazali, but made famous by William Lane Craig🌸🌸 Everything that begins to exist has a cause, the universe began to exist, the universe has a cause which is God, God is eternal therefore doesn’t begin to exist therefore doesn’t need a cause🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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COSMOLOGICAL🌸 The cosmological is an a posteriori, inductive argument, by inductive I mean that you build up a case to create a conclusion that you can persuade someone with🌸🌸 The cosmological argument answers the question why is there something rather than nothing🌸 Based on the concept of causation ‘law and effect ‘🌸🌸 AQUINAS wrote about the cosmological argument in his summa theological🌸🌸 If we reject infinite regret the final cause must be a non physical (spiritual), not time bound (eternal), not caused (necessary)🌸🌸 Kalam argument saves the basic cosmological argument from circular logic🌸🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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AQUINAS THIRD WAY - COSMOLOGICAL 🌸🌸 There are things that are contingent, these things require something else to create them, this cause of contingency cannot go back forever, there must exist an uncreated being🌸🌸 All things in nature are limited in their existence, a child cannot come into existence without parents, necessary being must create the universe 🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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AQUINAS SECOND WAY - COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT🌸 There are things that are caused, these things require something else to cause them, this chain of causation cannot go back forever, there must exist an uncaused cause🌸🌸 The efficient cause causes the second cause (the intermediate cause) which then causes the ultimate cause), like in dominos, the efficient cause pushes the first one, the intermediate cause is the first domino pushing the next one and the ultimate cause is the next domino pushing the next one🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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AQUINAS - FIRST WAY / COSMOLOGICAL 🌸 There are things that are in motion, these things require something else to move them, this chain of movement cannot go back forever, there must exist an unmoved mover🌸🌸 Aristotle namer this the prime mover which must be god, Aquinas said ‘that which all men call God’🌸 To illustrate this point further, Aristotle talks about things moving from potentiality to actuality, which means it has something that I can do and it’s actuality is when it has achieved this🌸🌸 Something must cause the potentiality to become actuality which is an ‘efficient cause’ 🌸🌸🌸 A block of marble has the potentially to become a sculpture, it only reaches this actuality when acted upon by a sculptor which is the efficient cause🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #cosmological #teleological #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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VIRTUE THEORY 🌸Virtue theory is a character based theory based on performing your intellectual and moral virtues well to reach eudamonia, all beings have this ability bc we l have practical wisdom which we can practice and get getter at through habituation, the golden means is between the excess and vice of a virtue🌸 there are issues on is there really any guidance on how to act, that virtues clash like Loyalty and Honesty, it’s also circular, virtuous people do virtuous acts, does a trait have to lead to eudaomonia to be a virtue? Should do yes as that are end goals, it’s good living🌸🌸🌸 UTILITARIAN🌸 consquentalist, quantative moral theory🌸🌸 Hedonic calculus, purity, intensity, duration, type🌸 Majority rules, moral status who do we save, hedonic calculus is cold and clinical and to hard to use, is pleasure even the only good? What about preferences? Preference util, includes animals and the wishes after people have died🌸🌸🌸 KANTIAN DEONTOLOGY🌸🌸 Non consequentialist, act centured and rule guiding, categorical imperative, don’t treat people as a means to an end, universalisbale, don’t treat society as a means to an end🌸🌸 problem, duties clash, universalisabke maxims aren’t moral, what about consquences - must do it out of duty! hypothetic not caterogical🌸🌸🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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INTUITION AND DEDUCTION🌸🌸 cogito, clear and distinct ideas and the trademark argument🌸🌸 Intuition is to understand something instinctively and deductive is to infer something🌸🌸 clear and distinct ideas are self evident and can’t be logically doubted🌸🌸🌸 Trademark - I have a concept of God, everything that exists has a cause, my concept of God must have a cause, my concept of god contains perfect, the idea that caused this was god, god exists🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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SCEPTICISM🌸🌸 Globals is we don’t know anything, local is some things we doubt🌸🌸🌸 Best explanation- empiricist 🌸🌸 cogito so cant be global🌸🌸 reliable senses can’t be denied🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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IDEALISM🌸🌸 is the view there there is no external world independent of our mind, mind dependent🌸 PQ and SQ are all mind dependent also🌸🌸 Master argument, can’t think of something that isn’t being perceived bc that would make it mind dependent 🌸🌸 Where does the desk go? Solipsism, Hallucination🌸🌸 God’s mind cause it’s existence can’t be from ideas and ideas can’t create themselves, can’t be from my own mind bc I can’t control there therefore has so be another mind, that mind must be god🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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INDIRECT REALISM🌸🌸 The world still exists independent of the mind but what we perceive in sense data not the worlds 🌸🌸 Leads to scepticism🌸🌸 Russel says best explanation and Locke gives 2 reasons, memory and imagination and that senses confirm one another🌸🌸🌸 pq are inherent to the object where as sq are not🌸🌸🌸 #rs #buddhism #alevelbuddhism #buddhismrevision #revision #alevel #buddha #philosophy #education #eduqas #rseduqas #religion #buddhist #alevelreligiousstudies #religiousstudies #ethics #love #revision #directrealism #aqaphilosophy #philosophyrevision #utilitarianism #kant #philosophyofmind #philosophyhelp #philosopher

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DIRECT REALSIM🌸 Illusion, hallucination, Russell’s perceptial variation, time lag🌸🌸🌸 There mind independent, we see the external world exactly how it is🌸🌸🌸 External worlds exist independent of the mind🌸🌸

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