utilitarianism Photos & Videos

3 days ago

Uxoricide: So it happens, an old couple maybe in their 80s, and one part becomes senile, or very sick and experience very much pain, sometimes for a few months, but usually maybe a year or two. Then sometimes the other well-being part decides that they are gonna kill their significant other so that they experience minimal pain or they don't have to live with dementia, out of love, even though their significant other may not now about their plan to murder them. This does not only happen in couples, thatd just an example. Of course this is not morally clean to do so, but maybe it is; I mean, the victim is gonna die either way, the difference is that the victim experiences much less pain and suffering. It may ne har for families both to do so, and to not do. What do you think about commiting uxoricide? -🐈EB. #uxoricide #murder #utilitarianism #kanteism #dementia #death

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3 days ago

. 공리주의? 효용과 최대 행복 원리를 도덕의 기초로 삼는 이론 행복이란 쾌락, 그리고 고통이 없는 상태 효용이란, 행복의 증진에 도움이 되는 것 - 어떤 행위든 행복을 증진해주면, 즉 쾌락을 늘려주거나 고통을 줄여주면 정당한 것이 된다. . 어떤 쾌락을 추구해야 하는가? 질적으로 높은 쾌락=자기 발전을 도모하는 정신적 쾌락 . 쾌락의 질을 어떻게 판단하는가? 두 가지 모두를 경험해본 사람이 도덕적 의무와 상관없이 쾌락의 양이 적더라도 불편함을 감수하고라도 어느 한 가지를 뚜렷하게 선택한다면, 그것을 질적으로 높다고 평가할 수 있다. (경험적 판단) . 두 가지 쾌락에 대해 똑같이 잘 알고, 그 둘을 똑같이 즐기고 음미할 수 있는 사람들이, 자신의 보다 높은 능력이 동원되어야 하는 특정 삶의 방식을 훨씬 더 선호한다는 것은 부인할 수 없다. 짐승이 누리는 쾌락을 마음껏 즐기게 해준다고 해서 하급 동물이 되겠다는 사람은 없을 것이다. … 지성을 갖춘 사람이 바보가 되고, 교양있는 사람이 무식한 사람이 되며, 느낌과 양심을 가진 사람이 이기적이고 저급한 사람이 되려 하지는 않을 것이다. p30-31 . 만족하는 돼지보다 불만족스러워하는 인간이 되는 것이 더 낫다. p32 . 우리는 왜 때로 저급한 쾌락을 선택하는가? (ex. 육체적 쾌락) 어떤 극단적인 불행에 시달리는 까닭에 전혀 바람직하지 않은 것처럼 보이는 것으로 도피하고 싶은 충동 때문일 것이다. p31 . 높은 수준의 쾌락을 향유할 형편이 되지 않기 때문이다. 생계를 위한 직업 활동 혹은 환경의 열악함이 높은 능력을 발휘하는데 부정적으로 작용한다. -이 부분에 대한 사회적 역할에 대해 비판을 받기도 하였지만 밀은 소극적인 입장을 보였다. . 따라서, 자기 경험/자의식/자기 관찰의 습관을 통해 최선의 비교 수단을 가지고 있는 인간이 더 많이 추구하게 된다. 이것은 질을 측정하는 규칙이며 인간 행복의 규칙이자 도덕 기준이다. 효용은 행복을 추구하고 불행을 방지하거나 완화하는 것까지 포함한다. . 삶을 불만족스럽게 만드는 요소 1. 이기심 2. 정신 교양의 부족 (지적인 관심을 기울일 정도의 성숙한 정신문화가 필요) . 이기심에 대한 해결책 1. 개인의 행복/이익이 전체의 이익과 가능하면 최대한 조화를 이루도록 법과 사회 제도를 만들어야 한다. 2. 이 사실을 모두가 알게 해야 한다. 개인의 이익이 모여 사회의 이익을 형성하도록 함. “일반 행복 (general happiness)" . 밀은 인간으로서 품위(sense of dignity)를 지키는 것이 무엇보다 중요하다고 보았음. 품위가 높은 사람일수록 그 품위가 행복을 구성하는 필수적인 요소가 되기 때문. 따라서 품위가 대립되는 것은 일시적인 순간을 제외하면 결코 진정한 욕망의 대상이 되지 못함. . 공리주의라는 표현은 밀이 처음으로 사용하였다고 한다. . 밀이 추구하는 삶의 자세 때문에 자기계발서의 느낌이 들기도 했다. 한 문장이 너무 긴 탓에 가독성이 떨어져 책장을 다시 되돌아가는 횟수도 많았다. 읽은 후 드는 의문은 과연 정신적 쾌락이 질적으로 더 높다고 할 수 있는가. 개인의 가치관이 모두 다른데 쾌락의 질을 평가할 수 있을까. 또, 최대 행복을 위해 개인의 노력을 중요시하지만 정작 사회의 역할에 대한 설명은 너무 부족하지 않았나. 그가 주장하는 사회는 너무 이상적이지 않나. . 반면 효용 원리에 따른 도덕, 정의에 대한 입장은 참신하게 느껴지기도 했다. 행복에 영향을 주지 않는 타인의 희생은 쓸모없다는 것이나, 법적 처벌에 관한 부분. 물론 동의하지는 않지만 말이다. 밀은 예외적 사항이 생기는 이유는 인간사가 너무 복잡하기 때문이라고 했다. 그의 이론에 수많은 의문이 드는 것도 인간사가 너무 복잡하기 때문이지 않을까. . #공리주의 #utilitarianism #존스튜어트밀 #johnstuartmill #책세상 #책 #책스타그램 #북스타그램 #독서 #책추천 #추천도서 #글 #책구절 #book #bookstagram

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5 days ago

In time for the weekend, give this week’s episode of Genuine Chit-Chat a listen, for a solo drive or when doing chores,- it’s free and available on Spotify, iTunes, Podbean and the usual podcast apps! This week marks the return of our favourite palaeontologist/author Wayne Telford, along with Josh (the co-host of “Science, But Simple”), discussing what superpowers would be the most ideal to use in a realistic (less vigilante-like) sense and which ones they think they’d get if they were a fictional character. As well as the above, a fairly detailed discussion on human culling & utilitarianism takes reigns halfway through the talk, mentioning Thanos’ idea of balance and how, or if, it could work, followed by opinions on assisted suicide, “anti-natalism”, abortion and stem-cells.

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1 week ago

Over halfway through the week and you’ve made it this far - take a load off and tune into Genuine Chit-Chat, an uncensored British podcast having “Honest Conversations With Interesting People”, available on Spotify, iTunes, Podbean and the usual podcast places! This week marks the return of our favourite palaeontologist/author Wayne Telford, along with Josh (the co-host of “Science, But Simple”), discussing what superpowers would be the most ideal to use in a realistic (less vigilante-like) sense and which ones they think they’d get if they were a fictional character. As well as the above, a fairly detailed discussion on human culling & utilitarianism takes reigns halfway through the talk, mentioning Thanos’ idea of balance and how, or if, it could work, followed by opinions on assisted suicide, “anti-natalism”, abortion and stem-cells.

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1 week ago

PART X - THE END The mind is an open grave waiting to be explored and expanded, Prisoners of dead philosophers with no escape, In the Aesthetics of Horror and despair we find the light at the end of the tunnel for our humanity, For we are more then thinking and existential shadows. In the Niches of the Absurd we try to find meaning and understanding, The Entzauberung of a dying unfound world, Disenchanted of its symbolism and true purpose, The more we progress the more we regress towards our own nihility, Following the demystification and glamourization of the End. Abandoning the traditional and predictable, A new form of Iconoclasm and thought is required, The Archaic imprint of thinking and the spirit have been dehumanized and erased, Through the Solipsism of Isolation nothing else seems to exist. Currents of metaphysical desperation deconstructing the pedestals of truth, Altruism has become devoid of belief and utilitarianism, In the Abyss of duality awaits the ruins of awakening and realization, We are the living eschatology of the known and unknown. © words by John Restrepo Photo by Antonio Mora #Poetry #writing #Inspiration #photography #theend #doubleexposure #solipsism #duality #desperation #metaphysical #belief #truth #utilitarianism #altruism #mindisanopengrave

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1 week ago

This week marks the return of our favourite palaeontologist/author Wayne Telford, along with Josh (the co-host of “Science, But Simple”), discussing what superpowers would be the most ideal to use in a realistic (less vigilante-like) sense and which ones they think they’d get if they were a fictional character. As well as the above, a fairly detailed discussion on human culling & utilitarianism takes reigns halfway through the talk, mentioning Thanos’ idea of balance and how, or if, it could work, followed by opinions on assisted suicide, “anti-natalism”, abortion and stem-cells. Next week will technically be a part 2 of this chat, but we are having them as two separate podcast episodes as the second half of the chat delves into different topical territory, where religion & faith and palaeontology are discussed, as well as Josh, Wayne & Mike’s favourite water-dwelling, land-dwelling and extinct creatures, so anyone who’s interested in learning about some cool new animals and some of the crazy things they do, be sure to return! Shout-out to @cloth_talk_podcast ! GCC is also a part of the Brit Pod Scene!

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1 week ago

Orang tanpa pernah membaca On Liberty, tapi sudah bisa bicara macam-macam tentang liberalisme. Banyak yang mengasumsikan jika liberal itu memusuhi agama, justru sebaliknya, dalam liberalisme itu menjungjung kebebasan sejati, termasuk kebebasan seseorang dalam beragama. Seorang tidak dapat dikatakan liberal jika ia tidak menghargai pilihan individual, termasuk memilih agama maupun mengembangkan agamanya. Dalam liberalisme, dikenal juga istilah utilitarianisme, suatu term yang menekankan pada prinsip individualistik, akan tetapi dalam prinsip individualistik tersebut mendasarkan dirinya juga pada prinsip manfaat. Sehingga dalam liberalisme tersebut tidak mengabaikan juga suatu kebahagiaan umum ataupun kesejahteraan umum. Bukan berarti saya sepenuhnya setuju dengan liberalisme, saya hanya ingin meluruskan kesalahan berpikir banyak orang. Utk itu, saran saya, baca dulu On Liberty, suatu karya monumental "kitab sucinya" orang liberal, baru bicara tentang liberalisme. #On_Liberty #Filsafat #Liberalisme #jsmill #utilitarianism

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1 week ago

The brilliant Sally Phillips will be discussing how #utilitarianism took over the world and why it should be stopped with Idler editor Tom Hodgkinson at the #IdlerFestival. Tickets in bio.

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2 weeks ago

💭 Crime and Punishment by Fydor Dostoyevsky 💭 · Currently on page 319/633 · Raskolnikov (the main character) is whiney, intelligent,  kind of a narcissist, empathetic to others but also a murderer. · So far I definitely like this book. I thought Dostoyevsky's writing would be dense but it's actually rather easy to get through. I also like the switch between 3rd and 1st person, which allows the reader to fully understand how and what is going on in Raskolnikov's mind. For once I don't mind reading different POVs - the transition between characters is always smooth and is done in a way that I don't think i've seen in a book i've read recently (that I can remember). My only gripe right now is that there is a lot of exposition, i'd much prefer to get on with the plot. · · · I'll keep you updated! · · · · #CrimeAndPunishment #FydorDostoyevsky #CurrentlyReading #Bookish #Nihilism #Realism #RussianLiterature #Dostoevsky #Literature #Bookaholic #Bookstagrammer #Philosophy #Utilitarianism #Bookpic #BookNerd #Novels #gracesholeyear #reading #Bookshelf #Dostoyevsky #BookWorm #Bouqin #instalivre #Libros #BookishAllure #Bibliophiles #Lecture #Bookphotography #BooksBooksBooks

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2 weeks ago

One reason why utilitarianism -- the ethical theory advocating for "the greatest good for the greatest number" -- fails... . Who gets to define what is "good" or "greater" and by which standard? . Not to mention, unless certain rules or principles are presumed to be absolute (i.e., human rights), the rights of the minority can easily be trampled by the majority. . Moreover, given our finite minds, we actually can have little confidence in how much "good" or "evil" will result from almost any action -- in the long run. . If only there were an Omniscient Being with certain moral standards by which we could make decisions... . It is quite hard to promote an objective, logically consistent theory of ethics without God . . . . . . . . . . (Stills from Covert Affairs) #ObjectiveMorality #Utilitarianism #CovertAffairs

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2 weeks ago

One reason why utilitarianism -- the ethical theory advocating for "the greatest good for the greatest number" -- fails... . Who gets to define what is "good" or "greater" and by which standard? . Not to mention, unless certain rules or principles are presumed to be absolute (i.e., human rights), the rights of the minority can easily be trampled by the majority. . Moreover, given our finite minds, we actually can have little confidence in how much "good" or "evil" will result from almost any action -- in the long run. . If only there were an Omniscient Being with certain moral standards by which we could make decisions... . It is quite hard to promote an objective, logically consistent theory of ethics without God . . . . . . . . . . (Stills from Covert Affairs) #ObjectiveMorality #Utilitarianism #christianblogger #Christianbloggers #faithblog #faithblogger #faithbloggers #apologetics #ChristianApologetics #jesussaves #jesusfreak #Christianity #JesusIsLord #ChristianLiving #GodIsGood #GodIsGreat #togodbetheglory #Christ #TeamJesus #Jesus #Christian #JesusChrist #savedbygrace #ChristianLife #GodIsGoodAllTheTime #ChristianQuotes #tgbtg

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2 weeks ago

Some utilitarian Canadian Modernism with the Ashbridges Bay pumping station. Located in Toronto, Ontario, and built in the 1960’s, it’s the primary pumping station for a sewage treatment plant. #mcmdaily #ashbridgesbay #utilitarianism #canada 🇨🇦 mcmdaily.com

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2 weeks ago

3rd stop on the Europe Philosophy Tour: university college London for Jeremy Bentham. This British philosopher asked to have his body taxidermied in his will. Unfortunately, the auto-icon (his body and wax head) Is currently on display in New York until August. #betham #utilitarianism #philosophy #london #dasein #europe

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3 weeks ago

I took a minute to edit this a bit more to my liking. Only four hours until the next bus!

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3 weeks ago

It’s important to recognise that good people are capable of doing bad things just as bad people can do good things. When it comes to your past trauma or mental illnesses it’s never an excuse for you ‘intentionally’ hurt another being; you are not at any liberty to be malicious. Depression/etc ‘exaggerates character in the long run...it makes good people better;it makes bad people worse’. But then you ask the question itself what does it mean to be a good/bad person? And the act or virtue of doing bad/good itself.

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3 weeks ago

『美』 你為什麼喜歡他? 因為他能給我生活省心,讓我專心在我想做的事情上,也不需要太煩惱衣食住行。 你為什麼喜歡他? 不知道誒。就是一種感覺,就算他其實真的挺一無是處的,我依舊忍不住想要一直跟他在一起。 當一件事情的使用價值不斷被放大 它就成了工具 抑或是世俗的功利判斷 唯有超脫功利 才能看見背後的價值所在。 孝順,不就是這麼一回事嗎? #手書 #手寫的溫度 #手抄 #手寫 #硬筆 #語錄 #功利比較 #美 #handwriting #writing #writtenwords #beauty #utilitarianism #uselessbeauty #quotes #yrhpost

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3 weeks ago

Here’s today’s drawing of Jeremy Bentham is the father of utilitarianism. This philosophical position holds the idea of good (and therefore as an axiom for utilitarianism’s ethical axiom) as the most pleasure or happiness for the most people. His work, strangely titled Chrestomathia explores the pedagogical problem of what should we teach kids in relation to utility? #philosophy #bentham #dasein #utilitarianism #happiness #existentialism #phenomenology — getting closer and closer to my EuroPhilosophy Tour where I will be visiting the graves of the philosophers that have been an influence on my own philosophical thought. Hopefully by drawing these philosophers and the cities where they their lives ended, I will be able to create characters and settings for my next book, which I intend on containing at least some comic book elements (unless the whole thing ends up being a comic book). —

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4 weeks ago

Ethics in the real world - Peter Singer It contains essays discussing practical ethics through issues of our contemporary world (public health, science and technology, gender, animal's life, politics, happiness and so forth) in a very clear language. #practicalethics #eticapratica #윤리학 #실천윤리학 #bioethics #bioetica #생명윤리학 #utilitarianism #utilitarismo #공리주의 #petersinger #피터싱어 #effectivealtruism #altruismoeficaz #이타주의 #philosophy #filosofia #철학 #bookstagram

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1 month ago

Every season I decide, will the roses have a short life, or will I kill all insects daring to touch them. And I choose insects over a rose's life, just to spare bees for all the other good they might do. This year I managed to keep them a little longer. #utilitarianism favors the #bugs

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1 month ago

Have always educated my heart / soul by travel, creative passions & helping others through my work; now working on educating the mind more. First 300 level (3rd Yr) uni exam tomorrow (philosophy/ ethics). Happy with grades so far trying to hold them high enough to have the option of considering a masters. I will reply to any txts / FB Msgs I haven't yet on Tuesday so I haven't forgotten just needed to prioritise until Tmro :) then work is priority the next few weeks. #brainfood #philosophy #latebloomer #geeklife #ilovebooks #justwanttostudydrugs #passion #ethics #ethicsinsport #peds #ethicalcoaching #braininoverdrive #thelibraryismyhappyplace #ifbbpro #ifbbfigure #harmminimisation #openbookpolicy #instadaily #picoftheday #aristotle #utilitarianism #deontology #virtueethics #appliedethics #normativeethics #metaethics #learning ❤️

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1 month ago

Utilitarianism☕.

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1 month ago

I'm excited to be going back to law school finally. I have studied so many things at the expert level, and I really enjoyed my semester of law school in 2013. I'm glad to finally be heading back to get my J.D. and become an attorney. August 13th classes start. #law #legal #legaltheory #philosophy #wisdom #morality #ethics #legalisntalwaysmoral #legalvsmoral #utilitarianism #ethicaltheory #1L #lawschool #highereducation #educated #guysthatthink #brainydudes #guyswithbrains #nerdguy #reader #read #study #studious #learn #beeducated

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1 month ago

Recommend reading for anyone who is interested in utilitarianism. Višak argues within the utilitarian framework that replaceability argument is not valid and that veganism is more in accordance with utilitarian views. But this book did convinced me of what I already knew, that utilitarianism is not for me. I am a strong believer of human and animal rights. #veganbooks #bookstagram #igreads #vegansofig #booklover #utilitarianism #animalrights #happyanimals #welfare #animalwelfare #eestivegan #bookish #palgravemacmillan #palgrave #raamat #philosophy #ethics #petersinger #veganactivism #veganlife #bookshelf

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1 month ago

. . This is the 2nd part of the questioning, 1st part @plain_philosophy . Want to learn more about the philosophy? . Great Philosophy courses from top UK & US universities. Online & insanely cheap! . Link in our bio @plain_philosophy . . #philosophy #logic #logicpuzzle #philosophical #philosophical #philosophymemes #stoic #stoics #stoicis #marcusaurelius #seneca #epictetus #epicurean #plato #aristole #uni #universities #courses #mooc #thoughts #thoughtexperiment #wwjd #christian #muslim #jewish #kant #utilitarianism

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1 month ago

فایده‌گرایی [ یوتیلیتاریانیسم ] در یک بند: فایده‌گرایی توسط جرنی بنتام در پاسخ به سوال ( چه باید کرد؟ ) مطرح می‌شود. فایده گرایی می گوید: اگر امری باعث افزایش میزان خوشی اکثریت شود ، حتی اگر باعث آزردگی شخصی یا موجودی بشود و یا حتی اگر باعث از بین رفتن عدالت هم بشود [ برده داری ]، چون باعث افزایش خوشی اکثریت [ نه عمومیت ] می‌شود پس باید آن امر صورت پذیرد. #اخلاق_مدرن #میم_دال_ر_نون #Utilitarianism

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1 month ago

The philosopher Jeremy Bentham, founder of utilitarianism, died 186 years ago. He did what everyone thought about doing, but never had the guts to do - have his body stuffed and preserved, to the delight and horror of all. You can go see it at University College London. http://kelsini.com #haikuofinstagram #haiku #poem #poetry #writing #writersofinstagram #writer #funnypoetry #history #thisdayinhistory #historyhaiku #historymemes #britishhistory #philosophers #jeremybentham #universitycollegelondon #philosophy #utilitarianism #historyofphilosophy #deathgoals #undead

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1 month ago

#utilitarianism .:. Aren’t philosophy book spines great?? Come on, nothing like wondering ‘what is truth’, how to ‘eliminate morality’ or confronting ‘totality’ to spice up any middle of the road cappuccino or G&T fuelled conversation ...

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1 month ago

Do you believe a universal moral code exists? Does morality exist at all? If so, where did it originate, and how do we determine what is moral? Join the discussion! (Images found in Google Images) --------------------------------------------------- #morality #morals #moral #philosophy #philosophers #good #evil #nietzsche #tocqueville #wilde #god #religion #nihilism #utilitarianism #ethics #rule #machiavelli #compassion #music #moralcode #virtue #aristotle #empathy #universal #humanity

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1 month ago

If you’ve ever contemplated whether you should let some idiot speak their mind and let them, J stew, as I like to call him, would applaud your efforts, but require you to teach the dumbass whatever it is their wrong about. Tall ask, right? Anyway, John Stuart Mill is a classical liberal, utilitarian and empiricist. Don’t let the jargon fool ya, the stuff is interesting and hyper-relevant today. A lot of modern liberal values stem from this thinker. So check them out in book form, or if you have his DNA and could like upload his thoughts to your head, thad be wicked as well. DM me if you got that kind of tech (so I can report you to Elon Musk or the FBI or whoever handles that kind of ish). Check out “On Liberty” and throw some quotes in leu of shade at whomever you want to impress at a cocktail party. #jstew #johnstuartmill #onliberty #utilitarianism #empiricism

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1 month ago

[DSE倫理-功利主義] 前言:此分享將會集中用DSE水平講,原因有二: 1.)Exam-oriented 2.)DSE水平等於淺啲,易於理解 所以有識之士必然會覺得膚淺,本文對象只係初學者/dse考生,請多多包容~😊如有任何補充,歡迎留言討論。 今日想分享嘅係行為理論之一:功利主義(utilitarianism),又名效益主義。倫理學係探討咩行為先係道德(正確),係效益主義角度而言,判定行為是否道德嘅標準在於"行為嘅後果能否為最大多數人帶來最大快樂",所以效益主義係一種後果論,行為道德與否跟動機、過程無關。 "為最大多數人帶來最大快樂"嘅原則稱為"效益原則",但究竟點解會追求快樂就係好呢?因為效益主義認為,快樂係唯一嘅內在價值。 價值理論當中,會將事物分成至少兩種價值,一係"內在價值",二係"工具價值",前者比後者高級。假如我地追求一樣野係為左藉住佢換取/得到其他野,咁個樣野就係具有工具價值,例如"錢"。但假如我地追求一樣野唔係為左其他野,而係為左個樣野本身嘅話,咁就係具內在價值。效益主義者認為,只有"快樂"先具有最大嘅內在價值,故此一個行為應該盡力爭取尼個內在價值,亦即係將快樂最大化。要驗證"快樂"係咪具內在價值,好簡單就可以解釋: 若小明努力讀書,目的係入大學,咁讀書就係工具價值,換取入大學;咁點解要入大學?原來係想搵好工,入大學又係工具價值;咁點解要搵好工?因為想要多啲錢,好工係工具價值;點解想要多啲錢?因為有錢可以換來好多物質,改善生活,所以錢係工具價值;咁點解想改善生活呢?因為想有快樂;咁點解想要快樂呢?Er......um......因為.......想要快樂咪想要快樂囉,好似冇咩點解,因為追求快樂嘅目的就係為左快樂本身,反映快樂有"內在價值",你做好多野,似乎都能夠推論到"為左快樂",例如追求身體健康、友情等。 既然每個人都係追求快樂,避免痛苦,而快樂本身又係最大嘅內在價值,因此將快樂最大化就自然係最合乎道德嘅行為,於是生成左"功利原則"。 效益主義成為西方倫理學界傳統,時至今日亦廣泛受使用(特別係政治哲學範籌),例如民主社會嘅"大多數人意願優先"、"少數服從多數"等觀念,都源於效益主義;自由市場及經濟思維都有效益主義嘅影子。 效益主義嘅優點包括: 1.合乎一般人的道德直覺 2.能確實、長遠地打造更美好嘅社會 3.利益、快樂得失是可計算的,易於應用於日常生活 4.能照顧動物權益,動物都係追求快樂避免痛苦 以上好簡單咁解釋左功利主義嘅倫理觀,應該唔難明。但功利主義係咪真係冇問題呢?有冇咩缺點或者謬誤呢?其他哲學家點樣反駁功利主義呢?下回分解。 #Utilitarianism #ethic #moral #ERS #哲學 #philosophy #倫理與宗教 #倫理學 #道德 #dse #YYlam #效益主義 #功利主義 #形而上學 #邊沁 #彌爾 #Mill #雞精 #補習

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👀 某天看見了圓形監獄(邊沁提出的概念),就深深的記在腦海裡,今天再深入的去查詢相關的理論。其中我最喜歡功利主義。 / 邊沁的功利主義(Utilitarianism)原則是建立在快樂和痛苦這兩種人類最基本情感基礎上。 所謂功利,其實是指一種由外物給予當事人的苦樂價值。 / 他指出一共有七個要素能夠計算苦樂的價值︰ 快樂的強度(intensity) 快樂的持久性(duration) 確定性或不確定性(certainty or uncertainty) 時間上的遠近(propinquity or remoteness) 繼生性(fecundity) 純度(purity) 範圍(extent) / 衡量一下,其實也沒這麼不快樂了。 / #K #邊沁 #功利主義 #Utilitarianism #starlight_morning / 20180529

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#Today in #history #28May  1883: 🙏🙏🙏 #VeerSavarkar , the creator of #Hindutva , #FreedomFighter , #SocialReformer and #writer , was born in Bhagur village.Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an Indian pro-independence #activist , #reformist #lawyer #politician #poet , writer and  #playwright. Savarkar coined the term Hindutva (Hinduness) to create a collective " #Hindu " identity as an essence of #Bharat ( #India ). His political philosophy had the elements of  #utilitarianism , rationalism and positivism,  #humanism  and  #universalism , and  #realism.Savarkar was also an  #atheist  who disapproved of orthodox beliefs in all religions. The airport at Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar's capital, has been named Veer Savarkar International Airport.The commemorative blue plaque on India House fixed by the Historic Building and Monuments Commission for England reads "Vinayak Damodar Savarkar 1883-1966 Indian patriot and philosopher lived here".In the recent past, the  #ShivSena  party has demanded that the Indian Government posthumously confer upon him India's highest civilian #award , the  #BharatRatna.

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