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Ottoman Qibla directional plate by artist/craftsman: Sayyid Thabit Damascus, Syria Hegira 918–26 / AD 1512–20 . This plate was an instrument to pinpoint the direction of the Ka’ba. Its base is a round and flat area that has a circle of semi-vertical columns on it. Emanating from the centre towards the rim are tables in the form of a sequence of rings. These rings contain the names of a number of cities in three bands (Damascus, Baghdad, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Tehran, Kabul …), in addition to alphabets corresponding to numbers that indicate degrees of angles. The inner circumference of the plate's rim is marked by units, each of which is equivalent to five degrees and also the four cardinal directions (east, west, north, south), which are set in half circles. The exterior surface of the rim contains a two-line explanation in Arabic on how to use the instrument.