appalachian Photos & Videos

1 hour ago

Though Moore Dormitory started construction several years prior, both it and the Western Carolina University Steam Plant were completed during the same year - 1924. Though Moore Dormitory has seen many renovations, the Steam Plant has received very little attention and very few upgrades, still using outdated boilers from the mid-20th Century and earlier that require a lot of ingenuity on the part of the staff of the facility to maintain. The Steam Plant still maintains a somewhat charming, Classical Revival-style exterior, with arched window bays and has sort of an ancient ruin type of aesthetic to it that is not seen in many places around the region. However, the building is not planned to be around much longer. With mounting maintenance challenges, the university wishes to build a new Steam Plant elsewhere on campus and redevelop the site of the current facility. I would hope they would at least keep some of the features of the building and incorporate that into whatever new structure is built on the site, but I doubt this will happen, as the building is a bit too old, inflexible, and decayed to be used in that manner. Cullowhee, NC, US

141
1 hour ago

This is Breese Gymnasium, named for William E. Breese, whom was then a trustee of the college whom was influential in its construction. Constructed between 1937 and 1939 by the Works Progress Administration, the imposing stone structure was home to the athletic programs as what was then Western Carolina Teacher’s College, now known as Western Carolina University. The building housed a basketball court on the upper floor, used from 1939 until 1956 by the Western Carolina basketball team, which then moved to Reid Gymnasium. The building also was the home of the local Cullowhee High School basketball team, which shared the space with college programs until Cordelia Camp Laboratory School was constructed in 1964, which had its own purpose-built Gymnasium. The building also housed a four-Lane 25 yard swimming pool on the lower floor, which is where I and many other residents of the town learned how to swim during our childhoods, and where the local youth and high school swim teams used to practice. The building remained largely the same, with a few minor alterations, until 2004, when it was renovated, all the windows and doors were replaced in the building, and the upstairs basketball gymnasium was converted into a dance studio, while the pool saw some minor upgrades to electrical fixtures and the like, which were much more minor. The pool remained open until around 2010 or 2011, when it was closed due to expensive repairs being needed, which the university was unwilling to pay for, and has sat empty ever since. Future plans call for the building to be converted into academic space, but whether the thick stone walls will see that happen is not clear. However, as a solidly-built building beloved by many at the university and in the local community, I do see it remaining a feature of the campus for quite some time to come. Cullowhee, NC, US

111
2 hours ago

These are two of the buildings constructed by the Works Progress Administration building program at Western Carolina University during the late 1930s, Hoey Auditorium, named for then-North Carolina governor Clyde Hoey, and the McKee Training School, named for Sylva resident and first female state representative Gertrude Dills McKee. The two buildings are relatively plain and unadorned, with some minor Classical Revival derailing around the front entrances, and were built at a time when the university was Western Carolina Teacher’s College, which focused on training educators. The training school, built with a unique construction method, was home to the local public elementary school and high school from 1939 until 1964, when the school moved to the Cordelia Camp Laboratory School elsewhere on campus. The building was originally symmetrical when built, but a two-story addition in 1955 threw off the balance and did not match with the rest of the building well, though more recent alterations, including replacement of the windows and exterior staircase, have made it more similar to the original building. Since 1964, the old McKee Training School has been in use as a classroom building by the university. The Hoey Auditorium, meanwhile, housed the institution’s fledgling music program, which has grown into one of its best programs, and was originally an assembly and performance hall for both the university and the public school, which was later supplanted by newer facilities elsewhere, including the Ramsey Activity Center, Coulter Building, and the Bardo Fine and Performing Arts Center. The auditorium received a major renovation in 1988, which reduced the seating capacity, added a covered porch onto the front facade, and closed up the building’s windows, but modernized the interior of the theatre and allowed it to continue to function for the university. Today, both buildings are relatively intact, but there are plans being floated to demolish Hoey Auditorium, which I hope are not carried out, as it helps balance out the McKee Building next door, and is quite easily adaptable due to its shape and good condition. Cullowhee, NC, US

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5 hours ago

I was messing around on the guitar earlier tonight and found this great little #appalachian sounding lick . Gulls by day// frogs by night// keep my fire// burning bright// take my silver// rob my gold// we are more// than blood and bones// scars I’ve gained// love I’ve lost// the sky remains// my colors dusk// wild to tame// the burden’s boss// beguiled the same// we’re free when lost// keep your heart// grow your hope// build your hearth// roll your stone . #songwriting #songwritingsession #singersongwriter #davidrawlings #universalmusicgroup #umg #sonymusic

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5 hours ago

My beautiful paternal grandparents. Mary Elizabeth & Francis Matthews. My cousin just sent this picture to me... I had never seen it before. Thankful for AncestryDNA & the family I didn’t even know I had out there! They are true blessings in my life.

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6 hours ago

Grateful. . That is the overwhelming feeling I have tonight. . Grateful for our friends who came to support us and learn more about our new product launch. . Grateful to have my Bayly girl at my side and the chance to show her that you can have fun while working and helping people. . Grateful that @egmazz shared this amazing opportunity with me. . Grateful for @krystinarusch , her new customers and business partner, and a pal to work alongside in this business. . We had an absolute blast tonight at the @winetowater space. The food and wine 🍷 were fantastic. The company is even better. #grateful #thankful #blessed #entrepreneur #entrepreneurlife #entrepreneurship #boone #appalachian #appalachianstate #wine #food #friends #business #fun

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7 hours ago

🍀 Join us for the most fun and delightfully Irish dining experience of your life! Featuring Irish classics cooked to perfection, you'll think you've arrived at the Emerald Isle itself! . Our specialty Irish menu is available in honor of St. Patrick between March 15th - 17th through normal dinner reservations and is available for $25/pp plus tax & gratuity. . #saintpatricksday #dinner #beer #music #fun #Irish #heritage #appalachian #LuckyBear #lucky

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8 hours ago

📍Clyde, NC Canon 7D Mark II | Canon 18-55mm mountainscapes and side-of-the-road stops for pictures

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9 hours ago

Cheers to #throwbackthursday cheers to everything we do and don't want to remember. To celebrating the good times and the regrets. No one would be who they are without the yin and the yang. To #sunsets the #Appalachian #Mountains to #musicians in the park. To palm trees somewhere #tropical , to your own #perspective , to leasons learnd from going to fast. To #newbeginings to love once had. oneday to be found agian. To the journy we #travel to the best and worst of times. To #newyork to #california. cheers to #yourpassions to the #postoftheday. To #brightfutires in almost familiar but still #fantasticplaces #lovethesuport #lovelife #sunlight #hiking #travelphotography #personalmoments #longdistancerelationship #growing #be #humannature #lookingback #movingforward

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10 hours ago

Dreaming of Springtime on these cold, wet, and blustery days.

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11 hours ago

I just posted my most recent IGTV videos about some of my favorite @silvermarketco products. In Part One, I show you the products I own and have tried, and in Part Two, you get to watch me wash my face. 😂🤷🏻‍♀️❤️ • I have accumulated several products from Silver Market Co. over the last few months, and I have been so impressed. Kelsi’s products are beautiful, effective, and affordable. Also, I love that I can get them locally at @tulsiwv. • Products I’ve used include: Soften Fade Renew Body Oil, Lemon Meringue Body Butter, Green Tea Eye Cream, Kombucha & Rose Facial Toner, Chai Lip Balm, Cranberry Rose Detoxifying Mask, Botanical Eye & Face Serum, Cinnamon Honey Soap, Clear Skin Facial Scrub, and Tangerine & Cardamom Perfume. • When I launch my website (hopefully by the end of the month!), I will have an official post about all of the products. For now, take a look at the videos on IGTV, and definitely give @silvermarketco and @tulsiwv a follow. ✨

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11 hours ago

It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment. -Ansel Adams

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12 hours ago

Late winter foraging looks like...it's going to be ramp season coming up here in just a matter of weeks! I can almost smell the garlic breath already. ⁣ ~⁣ During the hibernatory period that is winter, I don't get to get much of my wildcrafting game on. It is preparation, preparation, preparation, guessing games of numbers, scheduling, planning day-long hikes in search of a particular herb that may or not be flowering, lengthy ambles after a cluster of berries that may or may not have already been taken by a bear, the wind, the squirrels, the wild boars or other beasts. It is unpredictable, messy, disconcerting, un-plan-able. There will never be an end to the dirt under the nails after spending eight hours washing dandelion roots, or cleaning burdock. There will never be an end to the wonder that the witch hazel bloom is so neon bright during the deadest winter. There will never be an end to the delight of a jewelweed leaf's silvery opalescence when held under water.

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13 hours ago

This is Robertson Hall, named for Reuben B. Robertson, the former chairman of the college’s board, which is a dormitory constructed on the campus of Western Carolina University in 1929. The Renaissance Revival-Style dormitory building was constructed on the site of the Mount Zion AME Church, which served the small community of people of sub-Saharan African descent that lived in the area, which was disassembled and moved down the hill to the site of the present church, built from the materials of the earlier church, which stands along Old Cullowhee Road (old North Carolina Highway 107) on the back side of campus. The building stands adjacent to the site of the school’s first dormitory, known as Davies Hall, which was built in 1909 and replaced with the current Reynolds Hall in 1953. Robertson Dormitory was renovated during the 1960s or 1970s with new mechanical equipment installed, which led to a few vertical rows of windows being blocked up. Formerly blocked off by wooden boards, the windows bays more recently have been filled with stucco panels, which harmonize better with the building’s design and help tie it in with the modern Georgian-style buildings elsewhere on campus. Cullowhee, NC, US

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13 hours ago

I heard that the Ursack is pretty popular right now, and that it can be difficult to tell them apart at times. So I personalized mine a bit. . Yeah, yeah, now my bag is heavier. I'll chalk it up as a luxury item. 😁😜 . #2192in2019 #AimOnTheAT #AppalachianTrailThruHike2019 #AppalachianTrail #ATThruHike2019 #ThruHike #AppalachianThruHike #ThruHiker #ATHiker #Appalachian #AppalachianTrail2019 #AppalachianTrials #AT2019ThruHike #AppalachianTrailNOBO #AppalachianTrailNOBO2019 #AppalachianHikers #Guthooks #Ursack

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13 hours ago

This is the second building on the Western Carolina University to be named for Robert Lee Madison, whom founded the institution at Cullowhee, North Carolina in 1889. Constructed in 1939, the building replaced an earlier building constructed in 1904, which was the third building on campus and the main building of of the institution until 1913. The old building was then converted into the men’s dormitory, with the former assembly hall converted into the university’s first gymnasium. The old building, which was not originally intended to be a dormitory, was found to be inadequate for the growing institution’s needs by the 1930s, and thus was replaced by the current, purpose-built dormitory building in 1939, built with aid from the Works Progress Administration. The Colonial Revival-Style building sits on a hilltop overlooking the old Woodland Amphitheater, also built with federal aid during the New Deal. The building is a relatively simple structure, with the most notable feature being a large portico on the side of the building facing the amphitheater, which features three arches and a gracefully arcing staircase, which gives access to an entrance on the second floor, and provides a protected outdoor space to the residents of the building. The building later became a female dormitory, and then was renovated to become the first home of NCCAT, the North Carolina Center for the Advancement of Teaching, during the 1980s, which saw the addition of a Porte-Cochère, elevator, and a covered, partially-enclosed walkway that echoes the arched portico on the other side of the building. Today, this historic structure houses graduate students, and is one of five surviving structures from the university’s massive building program during the late 1930s, which transformed the campus from an underdeveloped rural school into a well-equipped teacher’s college. Cullowhee, NC, US

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14 hours ago

This is the Old Student Union building on the campus of Western Carolina University. Constructed in 1939, the Colonial Revival-style structure was built as part of a massive construction program undertaken on the campus by the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal-era federal program that was created by Franklin Delano Roosevelt to aid in the recovery of the nation during the Great Depression. The building was originally home to the student government, clubs, and publications, which were moved out of the nearby Joyner Building in order to make way for other programs within the building. The structure was used as the student union until the 1960s, when the present AK Hinds University Center was built, with the building since that time being home to offices and the university’s radio station. Cullowhee, NC, US

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14 hours ago

One of the two oldest buildings on the Western Carolina University campus is Moore Hall, constructed between 1917 and 1924, which was built as a female dormitory. Named for Walter E. Moore, a former state politician and resident of Webster, whom financed its construction, the Renaissance Revival-Style building was the second purpose-built dormitory on the campus, with the first being Davies Hall, constructed in 1909, and located on the site of the current Reynolds Hall, which replaced it in 1953. Moore Hall features a Mediterranean-style porch that covers most of the front facade, flanking the main entryway, which is topped with a “broken” arch, and running between three projecting sections of the facade that break the building into five parts. The building also features regularly placed windows, with some of the windows on the second floor being arched, reminiscent of the renaissance-era palazzos of Italy, with the top row of windows having flat tops, an unconventional arrangement that nonetheless has precedent in the historical architecture it is based on. The Italian influence extends to the building’s roof, which has a low pitch, reducing its presence and making the eaves a more dominant feature, which is another feature inspired by Italy’s Renaissance architecture. Adjacent to the building when it was built was the old Joyner Building, which housed most of the university’s classrooms and functions when it was built in 1913, and over time, adapted to new uses, before tragically being lost to a devastating fire in 1981, with a memorial plaza built on the site. Moore Hall has also over time variously housed a reception hall, reading rooms, the school infirmary, and the university’s second dining hall, which remained in use until the mid-1950s. The building was converted into a male dormitory during the 1960s, and then into classroom space during the 1980s, housing the university’s health and human sciences program until the school had a new building built on the Millennial Campus in 2012. The building has since sat vacant, awaiting an upcoming renovation to house a variety of the university’s programs. Cullowhee, NC, US

341
15 hours ago

One of the earliest sites of Settlement for Western Carolina University faculty and staff was the area around Dix Gap, which sits at the southern end of the old campus in Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed around the turn of the 20th Century, the houses were among the first in the area to have indoor plumbing and electricity, taking advantage of the services built by the university to serve its campus back in the early 20th Century. The area was supplanted by later developments such as Buzzard’s Roost and University Heights, which had houses of higher construction quality and larger size than those in the Dix Gap area. The houses in Dix Gap have continued to decline and disappear due to the location at the edge of campus, as well as the aging of the buildings, many of which have not fared well over time. A few have been renovated, but today, most are low-income housing at the edge of campus, and several are vacant, or seriously dilapidated, and the house in the first two photos is slated for demolition for a new townhouse complex, which is to occupy the hillside above the house, with a new driveway to the development taking the place of the house itself. As this area vanishes, so does the history of the community. However, as these houses are not easily reusable, it is unlikely for them to be saved, and it’s just the nature of the continual evolution of this college community that these buildings will disappear for something newer and larger. Cullowhee, NC, US

632
16 hours ago

The only truly Tudor-style house I know of west of Asheville is this house on Buzzard’s Roost Road, just off the campus of Western Carolina University in Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed circa 1941, the charming, asymmetrical home is one of many houses built around the same time atop Buzzard’s Roost Hill, which were built by faculty, administrators, and professors at what was then known as Western Carolina Teacher’s College, now Western Carolina University. The house is the most distinctive and unique of those on the hill, and is visible from much of the campus, as it stands above the treeline and has a long, commanding view of the valley below, where the university campus sits. Cullowhee, NC, US

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18 hours ago

NEW ROAD BIKE GROUP RIDE. Every THURSDAY at 6pm — starting March 21st. The week is almost over and the weekend is insight. Come ride with us up some big hills tonight! Starting from Rhoddie at 6pm & finishing at the Speckled Trout for drinks & dinner. The 21-mile route (with 2,259ft of elevation gain) has been devised to showcase some of the BEST DESCENTS and HARDEST CLIMBS between Blowing Rock and Boone. The ride is open to all, but will have no official regroups, cue sheets will be available so you can stay on course even if you get behind! CLICK HERE TO SEE THE ROUTE: https://ridewithgps.com/routes/29348821

562
19 hours ago

It's been raining the past week and all I want to do is eat snacks on mountain tops with good friends. . . This was on top of Tray Mountain in North Georgia. Heartburn @guinness804 and I sat up here in the sun for over an hour with our shoes kicked off snacking. On the long stretches of rain I long for these days. #appalachiantrail #backpacking #traymountain

1272
20 hours ago

The #appalachianmusic series has been a real blast so far. Let’s keep it rolling with one of my top 3 favorite bands from any genre: @rendcollective 🏔 I just lost a lot of you, I know. Rend Collective isn’t typically what you think of when you think of the twangy goodness of the Appalachian highlands. But Rend Collective carries a timeless message and flavor that are big parts of Appalachian history and culture. 🏔 First of all, their Irish tunes come with a modern light rock sound that reminds me of the Celtic ancestry so deeply woven into Appalachia, all while appealing to my modern ear. While I love some old school bluegrass, I am also a product of my times, as we all are. Rend Collective is an epic collision of both old and new that I most thoroughly enjoy. 🏔 The best part, though, is that their mission is so much more than great music. They’re songs worship the Lord of Ireland🍀, of Appalachia 🏔, and of the whole world 🌎- they connect us with the mountains and with Jesus all at once. 🏔 Let me know what you think about RCO in the comments.👇🏼 . 📸: @patcollective . . . #rendcollective #irishmusic #ireland 🍀 #worshipmusic #worshippers #folkmusic #mountainfolk #greatsmokymountains #themountainsarecalling #andimustgo #johnmuir #appalachiantrail #mountainmusic #appalachianculture #mountainculture #mountainlifestyle #celticmusic #mandolin #luckoftheirish #awalkinthewoods #rewild #forest 🌲

5914
23 hours ago

This is the historic St. David’s in-the-Valley Episcopal Church, located on Forest Hills Road in Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed between 1884 and 1886, and consecrated in 1892, the Gothic Revival-style brick masonry church is home to the local Episcopal congregation, and was constructed with funding and support from Welsh-born Judge Daniel D. Davies, whom once lived in a grand Queen Anne-Style mansion across the valley known as Forest Hill. The church, which is the oldest remaining structure I know of with any significance in the Cullowhee area, with most other buildings from the same time period having been lost. The church thrived for several decades, but the congregation began to dwindle during the early 20th Century, with only three members making up the congregation by 1925, growing a bit by 1933, but then shrinking to the point where the church was closed in 1941, and deconsecrated in 1942. The church then sat vacant for over a decade, until renewed interest and growth in the local college led to its revival and reconsecration in 1959, with a small parish hall added to one side of the building. The building continued to function in that configuration for over 50 years, but, due to growth in the church’s size and needs during that time, which were due to the growth of Western Carolina University and Cullowhee, the church received a new parish hall in 2013, designed by local architect Odell Thompson, which harmonizes nicely with the historic church, and also allowed for the removal of the 1959 parish hall addition and restoration of the church’s exterior, with a new covered walkway connecting the two structures. The charming, quaint, and beautiful church with lovely, finely-crafted details continues to serve as the local Episcopal parish, and, as one of the oldest churches still in use in the county, holds a great deal of historical significance, though it is not listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Cullowhee, NC, US

1556
1 day ago

This is the old Village Store, a former grocery, post office, and gas station that sits along Old Cullowhee Road (old North Carolina Highway 107) along the Tuckaseigee River in Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed during the 1920s or 1930s, the long, rambling brick structure was the home of Battle’s Grocery, which sat along the main road between Cullowhee and Sylva at the place where it crossed a bridge over the Tuckaseigee River, adjacent to a larger building that housed Brown’s Store, now the Kindermusik building. The store not only sold groceries to the population of the area, which included students at Western Carolina Teacher’s College (now Western Carolina University), but also sold gasoline, with a canopy being attached to the front facade of the building (as seen in the black and white photo that was taken after the devastating flood of 1940), and also contained the Cullowhee Post Office into the 1950s. This area of Cullowhee was historically the commercial center of the community, which blossomed in the area following the construction of a mill at the present site of the Cullowhee Dam on the Tuckaseigee River, and once boasted several houses and businesses that catered to the needs of the surrounding, rural region of the county, as well as the local area. Much of the “old village” was swept away by the Flood of 1940, though brick buildings like the Village Store survived. The store was renovated in the 1960s or 1970s with a bonnet roof added to the structure, obscuring the brick parapet, and operated through the 1980s, but, with the new alignment of North Carolina Highway 107 bypassing this section of town, the store, along with other businesses, went into a steady decline, and eventually closed. Since that time, the surrounding area has mostly emptied out of the businesses that once made up a thriving hub of activity, and building has sat vacant, boarded up, and abandoned, with the owners unwilling to sell. Unfortunately, I do not see much of a future for the building, as it is in a severely deteriorated state, and, with potential redevelopment on the horizon for the surrounding area, it is unlikely to last much longer. Cullowhee, NC, US

541
1 day ago

This is the Speedwell Missionary Baptist Church, a quaint wood-frame structure that sits atop a grassy knoll in the community of Speedwell, just outside of Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed in 1908, the unique, wood-frame, Folk Victorian-Style structure features an octagonal tower with many levels, topped with a bell-shaped cap. Though there are not many structures with this type of tower in the country, I know of at least one other example, the old Towns County High School in Hiawassee, Georgia, which was built around the same time, but was a much larger structure. The building received a rear addition sometime in the 20th Century, which contains additional space, including Sunday school classrooms, used by the congregation. Today, the wood-frame Church is one of three within sight distance of one another at the center of this small, rural community in the Cullowhee Creek Valley, with it being the most picturesque and unique one of the three. Speedwell, NC, US

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1 day ago

This quaint farmhouse is located on Parker Farm Road in the community of Speedwell, just outside of Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed circa 1907, the charming Folk Victorian-style farmhouse was built by the Parker Family, for whom the road is named, and was one of two farmhouses from the time period built on the farm, with the other sitting abandoned behind a thick stand of trees, rusted-out cars, and a car salvage shop on Cullowhee Mountain Road. The house was modified, most substantially during the mid-20th Century when the front porch was enclosed to convert it into a sunroom with many jalousie windows, which, though not common in the region, allow the space to somewhat function as a porch during certain months, when the glass louvres are opened. The house is surrounded by several secondary structures, including a smaller bungalow-like house, which were once an integral part of the operation of the farm. However, the current generation of Parkers who live in the house run an excavating business nearby, and the family farm has become less of a main source of income or a major focus of their time, which is just a part of a wider change in the rural economic landscape of the area that has occurred since the mid-20th Century. Speedwell, NC, US

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1 day ago

This quaint Log Cabin house is located on Old Settlement Road between Webster and Cullowhee, North Carolina. Constructed around 1950, the house demonstrates the lag in stylistic trends that the region experienced historically, with it appearing to be more fitting with typical houses of the 1930s and 1940s. The house is built of logs, a traditional method that had fallen out of favor in the Victorian era, but become a bit more prevalent during the early 20th Century, and is today one of the most popular types of new home construction in the area. However, unlike more contemporary houses and older cabins, this house uses smaller, rounder logs, which give it a pleasant and unique appearance, but differentiates it from more recent and older houses of this type. Currently for sale, this charming house has been well-kept through the years, and will make a great home for whomever is lucky enough to buy it. Webster, NC, US

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1 day ago

We love seeing pictures of the stills getting acclimated to their new homes. It is like Christmas day for a child all over again. This 20 gallon Stampede Stills Lyne Master is sure to be quite a conversation piece as well as functional art. Thank you for looking at some of our recent work. Feel free to message us directly with any questions. Please visit our website to see some of projects and pricing. www.stampedestills.com #moonshine #moonshiners #bigboytoys #distilling #appalachian #copper #whiskey #lynemaster #texas #waco

730
1 day ago

It appears that the old Jackson County Jailhouse in Webster is getting some much-needed attention after being sold! From my prior post made back in 2017 - “This house may look quite ordinary, but it has more to it than meets the eye. This was the old Jackson County Jail in Webster, North Carolina, which allowed for the detention of criminals in the county during its first major growth phase in the late 19th and early 20th century. Constructed in a style befitting houses of the time, the brick structure also housed several jail cells and was meant to house both the sheriff's family and prisoners, and was constructed across the town square from the old Jackson County Courthouse. When the county seat was moved to Sylva in 1914, the old jail was sold as surplus property and converted into a private residence, and it received many renovations over the subsequent years. It is currently for sale, and is a treasure ripe for restoration. The courthouse and the many commercial buildings in the town, however, were not preserved and have been lost to history as the town took on a more rural and residential character. Today, this jail, a couple of churches, a cemetery, and several old houses are all that is left of the old county seat of Jackson County that was home to the county government from 1851 until 1914.” Webster, NC, US

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1 day ago

Studio bubbies Merlin and Mapache waiting for their cameos in our Independent State video demo. (Link at the top) (looks all Jklm.lno3p until we get 100 TY subs)

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